Composting is an excellent way to recycle kitchen and garden waste.
It is very easy to build your own compost bin and use the compost to help your garden grow, without resorting to the use of additional fertilizers which can have a detrimental effect on the environment.
Composting is the decomposition of materials that originated from animals and plants. These organic materials can be things such as plant trimmings, vegetable cuttings, eggshells and teabags.
The end result of composting is a dark, crumbly organic matter that can be used as fertilizer in garden soil.
The composting is performed by various bacteria, fungi and insects which naturally inhabit soil - they break down the material in aerobic conditions, which means it is a process which occurs with little Oxygen present. These organisms generate heat as they decompose the organic matter you have added, and break it into fine particles. Composting is nature's own method of waste disposal and soil fertilization.
Applying compost to soils provides an excellent conditioner and mulch, which fertilizes and provides soil structure, retains moisture and can restrict weed growth. Making your own compost from organic waste is a cheaper and more environmentally friendly alternative to the peat based compost extracted from wildlife sites. Composting also saves food waste from going into the landfill, or from going into the waste disposal.
Firstly, add organic materials to your compost bin - see below for a list of recommended (and not recommended!) items.
The various bacteria and fungi quickly work to break down the soft material.
This process causes the inside of compost pile to heat up - to around 140oF (60°C).
Once a lot of the initial work is done by these micro organisms, the compost pile will cool down, to around 80oF.
Small creatures such as worms then break down the tougher material.
The whole composting process usually takes between 3 – 9 months, and results in a nutrient-rich fertilizer to use in your yard.
The compost that is ready to use is best taken from the bottom of the pile, which allows the rest of the pile to continue to be worked upon by the worms and other insects.
You can buy a compost bin or build your own. There are numerous containers on the market for making a compost heap, although perfectly satisfactory ones can be constructed from scrap timber, bricks or wire mesh, although do try and use a bin with a lid to keep out the rain. Improve drainage by breaking up the soil underneath the compost bin.
The compost bin should be placed in a well-lit and well-drained area of the garden, preferably out of the wind.
Raw fruit and vegetable trimmings
Straw and hay
Animal bedding and sawdust
Crushed egg shells (these help to control acidity, so are great for your compost pile)
Hair and fur
Coffee grounds and teabags
Meat, fish or dairy products (these will all putrefy, causing odors and attracting flies)
Animal waste (dog and cat feces will encourage parasites)
Colored or treated paper
Chemically treated wood
Grass in large quantities (grass heats up and gives off ammonia, which can kill worms)
All that is left to do is turn the compost regularly with a pitch fork or a spade, and look forward to using your natural organic compost!